He wanted to develop easy terms and get the ordeal over as quickly as possible. [citation needed] He then concentrated his forces on the Port of Piraeus, and Archelaus, seeing his hopeless situation, withdrew to the citadel and then abandoned the port to join up with his forces under the command of Taxiles. Il 28 ottobre 1922 ha luogo la marcia su Roma con cui Benito Mussolini riesce a prendere il potere in Italia. Sulla, when he came back from the East, came by ship and marched north up the Italian peninsula from Brundisium (modern Brindisi). Later political leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force. - 87 B.C.E. Cinna's old co-consul, Papirius Carbo, and Gaius Marius the Younger, the 26-year-old son of the dead consul, were elected as consuls. Crassus' forces, fighting on Sulla's right however, managed to turn the opposition's flank and drive them back. 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He chose the site of the battle to come — Orchomenus, a town in Boeotia that allowed a smaller army to meet a much larger one, due to its natural defences, and was ideal terrain for Sulla's innovative use of entrenchment. Cicero comments that Pompey would have said "If Sula can, why can't I?". Rome was facing a rebellion in Asia Minor that required Rome intervention. In 83 BC Sulla prepared his five legions and left the two originally under Fimbria to maintain peace in Asia Minor. During these times on the stage, he, after initially singing, started writing plays, Atellan farces, a kind of crude comedy. Camped with his army in Campanian Nola in 88 BCE, the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla made the unprecedented decision to march against Rome. 88 B.C.E. 1 year ago. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds and Sayings IX.3.8; Plutarch, Sulla 36-37; Appian, Civil Wars I.12.105; A. Keaveney (2005) Sulla: the Last Republican (2nd edition) p.175. Rather than continue trying to rescue Marius, Telesinus moved north to threaten Rome. Sulla lost no time in intercepting the Pontic army, occupying a hill called Philoboetus that branched off Mount Parnassus, overlooking the Elatean plain, with plentiful supplies of wood and water. After the capture of Philippi, the remaining Mithridatic forces crossed the Hellespont to get away from the Romans. Sulla certainly made a lasting impression in this first major official contact between Rome and Parthia. Violence in the Forum ensued, some nobles tried to lynch Sulpicius (as had been done to the brothers Gracchi, and to Saturninus) but failed in the face of his bodyguard of gladiators. Possibly to protect himself from future political retribution, Sulla had the sons and grandsons of the proscribed banned from running for political office, a restriction not removed for over 30 years. Sulla first served under the consul of 90, Lucius Julius Caesar, and fought against the southern group of the Italian rebels; the Samnites and their allies. As this caused a general murmur, he let one day pass, and then proscribed two hundred and twenty more, and again on the third day as many. Why did Sulla march on Rome?? The first military leader to march his troops into the city of Rome was Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Lucius Cornelius Sulla was a remarkable soldier. Sulla justified his actions on the grounds that the Senate had been neutered; the mos maiorum ("the way of the elders"/"the traditional way", which amounted to a Roman constitution though none of it was codified as such) had been offended by the Senate's negation of the rights of the year's consuls to fight the year's wars. Sulla tells his new army they must march on Rome. This item is part of JSTOR collection Sulla is the subject of “The Sword of Pleasure”, a novel by Peter Green published in the UK in 1957. Caesar was coming from the NW. They are now largely lost, although fragments from them exist as quotations in later writers. Many of Sulla’s supporters were executed. The currency minted from this treasure was to remain in circulation for centuries and was prized for its quality. 88/30 Sulla leads his army against his opponents at Rome. 87 BC Despite initial difficulties Sulla succeeded in restoring Ariobarzanes to the throne. As he returned to Rome with his troops behind him, Sulla likely never imagined that he himself was ultimately furthering the transition from republic to autocratic empire. Original articles feature research on Greek and Hellenistic history, the Roman Republic and Empire as well as late antiquity. How did Marius help him? After his second march on Rome, he revived the office of dictator. Fimbria, however, soon found that his men wanted nothing to do with opposing Sulla and many deserted or refused to fight in the coming battle. Why? "[74] His excesses and penchant for debauchery could be attributed to the difficult circumstances of his youth, such as losing his father while he was still in his teens, retaining a doting step mother, necessitating an independent streak from an early age. In exchange, Mithridates was able to keep his original kingdom and territory and regain his title of "friend of the Roman people.". [46] Landing uncontested, he had ample opportunity to prepare for the coming war. The following year (85 BC) Fimbria took the fight to Mithridates while Sulla continued to operate in the Aegean. No general before him had ever crossed the city limits, the pomoerium, with his army. Sulla got his men digging, and occupied the ruined city of Parapotamii, which was impregnable and commanded the fords on the road to Chaeronea. Even the armed gladiators were unable to resist the organized Roman soldiers; and although Marius offered freedom to any slave that would fight with him against Sulla (an offer which Plutarch says only three slaves accepted)[41] he and his followers were forced to flee the city.[42]. The people wanted Marius to lead the war but the senate chose Sulla, who had become a consul. Marius died a fortnight later and Cinna was left in sole control of Rome. By noon the warriors of the Cimbri were defeated. Crossposted by. Sulla was a gifted and innovative general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and domestic. Marius met Sulla at Sacriportus and the two forces engaged in a long and desperate battle. This destabilized the Pontic army, slewing it towards its right flank. He then revived the office of dictator, which had been inactive since the Second Punic War over a century before. Perhaps in an attempt to gain experience for an army to act as a counter to Sulla's forces, or to show Sulla that the Senate also had some strength of its own, Cinna raised an army to deal with this Illyrian problem. This also removed the need for the censor to draw up a list of senators, since there were always more than enough former magistrates to fill the senate. In the end, over 50,000 combatants lost their lives and Sulla stood alone as the master of Rome. In 102, when Marius became consul for the fourth time, there came an unusual separation between Marius and Sulla. The Socii were old enemies of Rome that submitted (such as the Samnites) whereas the Latins were confederates of longer standing with Rome; therefore the Latins were given more respect and better treatment. Marius, however, fled to safety in Africa until he heard Sulla was once again out of Rome, at which point he began plotting his return. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Sulla's Civil War . [72], He was said to have a duality between being charming and easily approachable, able to joke and cavort with the most simple of people while also assuming a dictatorial stern demeanor when he was leading armies and as dictator. [29] Sulla then returned to the siege of Pompeii. The circumstances of his relative poverty as a young man left him removed from his patrician brethren, enabling him to consort with revelers and experience the baser side of human nature. While seemingly minor enough to not cause immediate repercussions in the field, Fimbria was relieved of his duty and ordered back to Rome. The Romans among his troops were sufficiently impressed by his leadership they hailed him Imperator on the field. [27] It is said Sulla killed Cleuntius with his own hands. Whatever the reasons put forward for the march, it is clear that at the time there was considerable opposition to his actions, and from several segments of Roman society. 50. The first of the Leges Corneliae concerned the interest rates, and stipulated that all debtors were to pay simple interest only, rather than the common compound interest which so easily bankrupted the debtors. Answer Save. With fighting breaking out in the streets and the Senate against him, Sulla realized his best decision was to withdraw to the east. Sulla's second march on Rome in a nutshell (info in comments) Close. He allegedly wanted to repair the fragile republican government, but he implemented reforms through brutal force. The Social War was, in part, caused by the continued rebuttal of those who sought to extend Roman citizenship to the Socii and to address various injustices inherent in the Roman system. With Flaccus out of the way, Fimbria took complete command. At the end of 82 BC or the beginning of 81 BC,[47] the Senate appointed Sulla dictator legibus faciendis et reipublicae constituendae causa ("dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution"). Cicero comments that Pompey would have said "If Sula can, why can't I?". Sulla had not only been digging trenches but also dikes, and before long he had the Pontic army in deep trouble. In addition, possible Sullan supporters were murdered. 11. How did Marius help him? The reason behind this was because an ancestor, Publius Cornelius Rufinius, was banished from the senate after having been caught possessing more than ten pounds of silver plate. 88/30 Sulla leads his army against his opponents at Rome. “Certainly, with the march on Rome of a Roman army, a watershed had been reached. Sulla marched on Rome twice to fight constitutional issues. By 86 BC, both men were elected Consul, and in retribution, a bloodbath against Sulla… Although Sulla had engineered this move, as Sulla was serving under Marius at the time, Marius took credit for this feat. Sulla has turned one Roman legion against another Roman legion. [33], The second law was concerned with the sponsio, which was the sum in dispute in cases of debt and usually had to be lodged with the praetor before the case was heard. The admiral in command of the fleet blockading Pompeii, Aulus Postimius Albinus, offended his troops so that they stoned him to death. Sulla canceled all the measures passed by Sulpicius after the imposition of the iustitium. Sulla was besieging Nola when he heard that rioting had broken out in Rome; he quickly returned to Rome to meet with Pompeius Rufus; however, Sulpicius' followers attacked the meeting, forcing Sulla to take refuge in Marius' house, who in turn forced him to support Sulpicius' pro-Italian legislation in exchange for protection from the mob. As the campaign year of 82 BC opened, Carbo took his forces to the north to oppose Pompey while Marius moved against Sulla in the south. Sulla rose to prominence during the war against the Numidian king Jugurtha, whom he captured as a result of Jugurtha's betrayal by the king's allies, although his superior Gaius Marius took credit for ending the war. The means by which Sulla attained the fortune which later would enable him to ascend the ladder of Roman politics, the Cursus honorum, are not clear, although Plutarch refers to two inheritances; one from his stepmother (who loved him dearly, as if he were her own son)[12] and the other from Nicopolis, a (possibly Greek) low-born woman, but became rich.[13]. By 83 BCE, Sulla marched towards Rome at the head of an army intent on seizing control of the Republic’s capital to eliminate potential threats and enforce his will for a second time. (he says with a large smile) Sulla puts another mark on the board. He dismissed his lictors and walked unguarded in the Forum, offering to give account of his actions to any citizen. He had the Senate draw up a list of those he considered enemies of the state and published the list in the Roman Forum. [54] Finally, Sulla revoked the power of the tribunes to veto acts of the Senate, although he left intact the tribunes' power to protect individual Roman citizens. Sulla's second civil war was one of a series of civil wars of ancient Rome. Sulla steadfastly defended Rome, its interests, and the republican status quo for much of his career, and if that was the breadth of his life’s work, then he would undoubtedly be hailed as a heroic guardian of the Republic. Over 120,000 strong, it outnumbered Sulla's forces by at least 3 to 1. After a second consulship in 80 BC (with Metellus Pius), Sulla, true to his traditionalist sentiments, resigned his dictatorship in early 79,[3] disbanded his legions and re-established normal consular government. [10] He retained an attachment to the debauched nature of his youth until the end of his life; Plutarch mentions that during his last marriage – to Valeria – he still kept company with "actresses, musicians, and dancers, drinking with them on couches night and day". Sulla played an important role in the long political struggle between the Optimates and Populares factions at Rome. This war against Mithridates promised to be a very prestigious and also a very lucrative affair. The Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 B.C.) Sulla is generally said to have set the precedent for Caesar's march on Rome and its subsequent dictatorship. His descendants among the Cornelii Sullae would hold four consulships during the imperial period: Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 5 BC, Faustus Cornelius Sulla in AD 31, Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix in AD 33, and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix (the son of the consul of 31) in AD 52. His soldiers say yes, of course. Sulla, however, patiently bided his time. It determined that the fate of Asia Minor lay with Rome and her successors for the next millennium. First wife, "Ilia" (according to Plutarch). Additional help came from Picenum and Spain. Over the previous three hundred years, the tribunes had directly challenged the patrician class and attempted to deprive it of power in favor of the plebeian class. Watch Queue Queue. In 103 Sulla succeeded in persuading the Germanic Marsi tribe to become friends and allies of Rome; they detached themselves from the Germanic confederation and went back to Germania. In total control of the city and its affairs, Sulla instituted a series of proscriptions (a program of executing those whom he perceived as enemies of the state and confiscating their property). Sulla's descendants continued to be prominent in Roman politics into the imperial period. 88/31 Sulla defeats Marius and his supporters inside Rome, near the Esquili 88/36 Sulla and Pompeius introduce a series of reforms at Rome, giving more 88/49 Sulla stops Sertorius becoming tribune for the following year. We oversee more than 150 serial publications as well as 28 periodicals and publish such renowned series as Historia, Hermes and Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie. This time the Pontic army was in excess of 150,000, and it encamped itself in front of the busy Roman army, next to a large lake. [66] Sulla's example proved that it could be done, and therefore inspired others to attempt it; and in this respect, he has been seen as another step in the Republic's fall. [30], After forcing the capitulation of all the rebel-held cities in Campania, with the exception of Nola, Sulla launched a dagger-thrust into the heartland of the Samnites. Why did his officers desert? He quickly made a name for himself as an excellent commander an… Lucullus: Well, Sulla, your march on Rome is basically complete, I have just received word that Sulpicius has been killed. It was so unethical that most of his senatorial officers (with the exception … When news of this reached Sulla he declined to punish the murderers. His momentous decision was… Pompey retreated to Brundisium and his legions took ship there for the East. In Rome the newly elected consuls, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (Asiagenus) and C. Norbanus levied and prepared armies of their own to stop Sulla and protect the Republican government. Historia was founded in 1952 by Karl Friedrich Stroheker and Gerold Walser. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Sulla, as yet not having a fleet, was powerless to prevent Archelaus’ escape. 50. [9] Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth among Rome’s comics, actors, lute-players, and dancers. Part of the cursus honorum, the unspoken but accepted career ladder of public office, was to first serve as a military officer before being able to run for public office. Pompey raised three legions from his father's veterans and his own clients in Picenum to support Sulla's march on Rome against the Marian regime of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Gaius Marius the Younger. What happened to Sulla once Cinna and Marius seized power in Rome? It is shown by nothing more clearly than by the desertion of all but one of his officers during his march on Rome … Sulla and Caesar defeated Gaius Papius Mutilus, one of the leaders of the Samnites, at Acerrae. To this end he reaffirmed the requirement that any individual wait for ten years before being reelected to any office. As Cinna's death reverberated throughout the Roman world, Sulla realized his opportunity to take full advantage. His first objective was Piraeus, as without it Athens could not be re-supplied. In 86 BC, after Sulla's victory in Orchomenos, he initially spent some time re-establishing Roman authority. Marius was a novus homo from Arpinum whose ancestors were from a moderately distinguished equestrian background. This, of course, made him very popular with the poorer citizens. Sulla was made Dictator in 81 or 82 BC. carried out notable constitutional reforms in an attempt to strengthen the Roman Republic during the last century of its existence. First March on Rome by Sulla. [5], Sulla, the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the grandson of Publius Cornelius Sulla,[6] was born into a branch of the patrician gens Cornelia, but his family had fallen to an impoverished condition at the time of his birth. Sulla divorced her due to sterility. During his period of exile, Marius became determined that he would hold a seventh consulship, as foretold by the Sibyl decades earlier. Sulla immediately sent sappers to undermine the wall. With his legions away from the capital, Marius, and a deposed Consul, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, gathered strength and made their own march on Rome. The men who had fought with Sulla at the battle before the walls of Nola hailed him Imperator on the field and also awarded him the Grass Crown, or Corona Graminea. 1 Answer. [7][8] As a result of this, Sulla's branch of the gens lost public standing and never retained the position of consul or dictator until Sulla came. [62], His public funeral in Rome (in the Forum, in the presence of the whole city) was on a scale unmatched until that of Augustus in AD 14.
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