Read and follow all directions on the label. Anthracnose Anthracnose (Discula spp., Kabatiella apocrypta) is a name for a group of diseases caused by several closely related fungi that attack many of our finest shade trees. Other Insects: Spider mites. It is caused by dry weather, combined with wind and high temperatures. The four wood boring insects mentioned below attack a wide range of trees. Aphids are small insects about the size of a ball point pen tip, they will occasionally be found feeding on new tender growing tips of Japanese maple trees. How to Identify Insect Damage to Maple Trees. May not injure silver maple. All native ash species are susceptible to attack. Maple shoot borer, Proteoterus aesculana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also known by the common names maple tip moth and maple twig borer, is a key insect pest of young maple trees in nurseries. Girdling Roots: If a tree shows symptoms of poor vigor such as small leaves, death of small limbs, top dieback or leaf scorch, the condition could be due to girdling roots. Leaves with multiple spots may wither and drop prematurely, but seldom so early or in such quantities as to threaten the health of the tree. For example, sprays with insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, neem oil extract, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t. As they feed on plant sap, they excrete honeydew (a sugary material). However, like all trees, their beautiful branches have a few enemies, particularly insects. Phyllosticta leaf spot of maple (Phyllosticta cotoneastri).Paul Bachi, Bugwood.org. Visible symptoms include wilted foliage, as well as the toothpick-like strands of boring dust (frass) that protrude from these small, pencil-lead size holes. Aphids: Aphids are soft-bodied insects that range from 1/16 to ⅜ inch long. var today = new Date() Occasionally, it is found on red maple. The Asian ambrosia beetle does not feed upon the wood of the host, but instead carries with it an ambrosia fungus, which grows within the galleries made by the beetle. A response to an undesirable soil contaminant, such as salt (applied to roads for wintertime ice control), accumulation of fluorides in containerized soil mixes with perlite, or high levels of phosphate fertilizers. Diseased trees lose vigor, and branches or entire trees may eventually die. Bacterial leaf scorch of maple (Xylella fastidiosa).John Hartman, Bugwood.org. Phyllosticta Leaf Spot: This disease, also known as purple eye, is caused by the fungus Phyllosticta spp. But, healthy trees aren’t off the hook. document.write(year) Twig pruner (Elaphidionoides villosus) target maples among other trees like oaks and pecans, according to... Red Oak Borer. Chemical treatments are rarely needed and must be repeated indefinitely. Rake up all fallen leaves. Infected trees may be deformed with crooked and angular branches or witches’ brooms (clusters of shoots growing from one area of a branch). Cottony maple leaf scale adults (Pulvinaria acericola) (Walsh and Riley, 1868).Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware. Always employ cultural controls first, then use less toxic alternative sprays for the control of insect pests and diseases. Keep your maple healthy by appropriate watering and fertilizing for the species or cultivar, pruning dead or damaged limbs and protecting the trunk from injury by lawn equipment. Tree Borers in Maple Trees Carpenterworm. Scorch symptoms are light brown or tan dead areas between leaf veins or around the leaf margins. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. This invasive insect, which has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in North America, was discovered in Kentucky in 2009. While these Japanese maple pests can attack a tree of any age, they are usually found in young trees. 'Joe' Pase III, Texas A&M Forest Service, Bugwood.org, Raymond Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org, Lorraine Graney, Bartlett Tree Experts, Bugwood.org, Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, Sturgis McKeever, Georgia Southern University, Bugwood.org, John A. Davidson, Univ. Over time, they may girdle trees or weaken branches to the point that they break under pressure. In addition, the use of insecticides kills the beneficial insects that normally keep aphid populations under control. This disease is most severe during wet weather. Md, College Pk, Bugwood.org, James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org, Steve Mayer, Extension Educator-Horticulture, B.L. Emerald ash borer (Agrillus planipennis) adults are distinctive dark metallic green beetles that are about 1/2 long and about 1/8 inch wide. Often these trees are less than four inches in diameter. Tree borer beetles include a wide range of insects which feed on trees. Usually, native borers (like the bronze birch borer) seek out trees that are already stressed, i.e., by drought, disease, or maybe a pruning injury. The larvae feed in tunnels in the wood of the tree branches and trunks, eventually killing … Colonies of these pests are obvious because of their white, fuzzy appearance. Since the beetles do not consume the host plant material, dinotefuran and imidacloprid systemic soil treatments are ineffective. Prevention & Treatment: Since leaf galls do little, if any, long-term damage to the tree, control efforts are typically not needed or recommended. Common Pests of Trees in Ontario INTRODUCTION About 10 000 species of insects and mites, and an equal number of diseases, that attack woody plants in Ontario have been identified. Maple trees (Acer sp.) When they break-and-enter, the larvae hatch from their eggs and bore holes into tree trunks and branches. and are deciduous trees that can reach 40 to 60 feet in height at maturity. The Asian longhorned beetle can attack and kill many tree species including poplar, willow, sycamore, and horse chestnut, but its favorite host are maple trees. Some target specific trees but here in the United States, we have hundreds of species and many can thrive on a range of tree species. Then, during late summer, raised, shining black, tar-like dots develop within the yellow spots on the upper leaf surfaces. The sooty mold fungus grows on the honeydew, resulting in unsightly, dark fungal growth. The symptoms are most noticeable in late summer to early fall, following extended periods of drought. Carpenterworms (Prionoxystus robiniae) are wood-boring insects that attack maple trees. A large section of one of my maple trees has been consumed by a wood boring insect. Tree borers are a group of insects that lay their eggs on or inside of trees, where the young larvae eat their way through living tissues. It is caused by dry … Tar Spot: Tar spot is caused by the fungus Rhytisma acerinum. Most larvae are shallow-boring species and tunnel just beneath the bark of the trunk, branches, or twigs. The bacteria are transmitted by leafhoppers feeding and vegetatively through grafts and cuttings. Leaves and buds may turn brown and die, followed by twig and branch dieback. Here are five of the most costly and aggressive insects have been most troublesome to foresters and landowners. Anthracnose: This disease is caused by the fungus Aureobasidium apocryptum. In the spring spores are produced and dispersed to the new leaves of susceptible trees. Ocellate gall midge (Acericecis ocellaris).Lacy L. Hyche. Ash trees are one of the most widely planted trees in Colorado. Note: Pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumblebees, can be adversely affected by the use of pesticides. These fruiting bodies occur in greater numbers on the upper leaf surface. Prevention & Treatment: In general, practices that encourage root development and root function are recommended. Leaf Scorch: On maple (Acerspecies) trees a number of problems cause symptoms that are generally classified as leaf scorch. website content by L. Townsend and J. Larson  website design by P. Dillon   copyright © 2017 - Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. As an alternative, dinotefuran or imidacloprid can be applied as a drench around the root zone of aphid-infested plants and is systemically taken up by the root system for insect control (see Table 1 for specific products). While not currently a menace in Michigan, the insects have already claimed 18,000 trees in neighboring Ohio, making its arrival almost inevitable. The disease has been suppressed by oxytetracycline injections, but not cured. Multiple treatments may be needed during a season. As one of the... Twig Pruner. Treat when aphids appear and repeat at seven- to 10-day intervals, if needed. 1) Azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azalea. Scale: Many scale species-including Pulvinaria acericola, Pulvinaria innumerabilis, and Melanaspis tenebricosa are pests of maples. Since little permanent damage results from woolly alder aphids, tolerating some damage is a good choice. I am not sure what they are, but they are almost certainly just coincidental. Leaving one aphid alive can result in the production of a new colony very quickly. Woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus) is gray to black in color. Prevention & Treatment: A combination of various natural enemies, including ladybird beetles (ladybugs) and parasitic wasps, usually keeps scales under control. Permethrin may be used as a trunk and scaffold limb spray beginning in March (see Table 1 for specific products). Other Japanese maple pests are scale, mealybug and mites. Tar spot of maple (Rhytisma acerinum).Andrej Kunca, Bugwood.org. Researchers at the University of Kentucky found that in some fields of newly transplanted Acer rubrum bare-root liners, as many as 100% of the trees were infe… The tree has obviously taken some massive injury on that side, perhaps 3 to 5 years ago, based on the amount of "wound wood" rolling in from the side. Maple Insects & Diseases. Prevention & Treatment: The fungus survives the winter in fallen leaves. Controlling this pest on a large tree using chemicals is expensive and often not practical. One woodpe… Occasionally the leaf margins are yellow or chlorotic. Maple trees are one of the most popular shade trees in Michigan yards. When I broke apart the infested section I found the following insect deep inside 1/4-3/8 inch diameter black bore tunnels. All of these pests present as tiny bumps or cottony dots on twigs and on leaves. The growth of the sooty mold fungus on the honeydew results in leaves that are dark grayish-black. Wood-boring insects often produce sawdust-like frass (excrement). There are many insects that attack hardwood trees which ultimately cause death or devalue a tree in the urban landscape and rural forest to the point where they need to be cut. Fertilization and watering may help to reduce the disease. Spinosad may cause injury to Japanese Maples. Galls typically develop in spring at about the time that leaves are expanding. 22 Common Insects Pests That Are Harmful to Trees Aphids. In small trees with light infestations, scale can be scraped off or infested branches can be removed and destroyed. for Aphids, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate, Bayer Advanced Vegetable & Garden Insect Spray Concentrate; & RTS, Ortho Tree & Shrub Insect Control Ready to Use Granules, Bayer Bio Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Insect Control Landscape Formula, Spectracide Triazicide Insect Killer for Lawn & Landscapes Concentrate, Bonide Neem Oil Fungicide, Miticide, Insecticide Concentrate, Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable Fruit & Flower Concentrate, Cleary’s 3336-WP Turf & Ornamental Fungicide. Soft Scales Found on Trees and Shrubs - The following are examples of commonly found scale insects that infest deciduous, broadleaf, and evergreen plants. Physical barriers may also be used to prevent insects from attacking plants, especially in the vegetable garden. Unless protected, infested trees usually die within 4 to 7 years of attack. Tunneling of this type cuts off the water supply and can cause foliage to be of… Spots arise in late spring or early summer after leaves attain full size. Rake up and discard the leaves in fall. This problem occurs when a root entwines around another large root or the base of the tree and prevents or hinders water and nutrient movement. 04/17/2020. This disease is more common in the forest, but may be seen in some landscape situations. Heavily infested trees are stunted with small flowers and leaves. The leaves curl up. They feed by piercing plant tissue and sucking plant sap. Wood boring insects typically attack already damaged or unhealthy trees. All of these pests present as tiny bumps or cottony dots on twigs and on leaves. 3Insecticidal soap should not be applied to Japanese maples. Their holes are normally round, oval or semicircular and are found in a random pattern on the plant. Once the gall forms, the pest is protected inside the structure. Protective sprays on other susceptible plants may reduce their spread. They are small and immobile with no visible legs. If a tree is small, the homeowner can handpick and destroy leaves before exit holes form to allow the release of the pest. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. It is important to remember that while unsightly, they do not cause permanent injury to a tree. Posted on: May 29th, 2014. Woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus).Bob Lepak, Bugwood.org. Ash availability, successful planting, and moderate growth rate encouraged the extensive use in the landscape. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. If it is determined that chemical control is necessary, the recommended chemicals include the following: cyfluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, or permethrin. These predators should be allowed to reduce aphid populations as much as possible. Spraying three times at two-week intervals with a copper-based fungicide, mancozeb, chlorothalonil, thiophanate methyl, or triadimefon starting when the leaves begin to unfurl in spring will provide control (see Table 1 for specific products). Occasionally the leaf margins are yellow or chlorotic. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2005 | Reviewed: Jul 8, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF). The first step to preventing insect damage on maple trees … A certified arborist should be contacted if chemical control is needed. They’re rarely found on Japanese maple, but some readers state they’ve seen this pest. Maple trees’ striking beauty makes them a favoured choice for landscaping. It requires alder and silver maple to complete its life cycle. Neem oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests. For more information, contact the Clemson Home & Garden Information Center. The beetle becomes active in early March (or earlier), and the female beetles bore into trunks or branch wood of thin-barked hardwood trees. You must determine which ambrosia beetle was the culprit that killed the neighboring oak tree. They attack and kill living trees, including maple, oak, crape myrtle, Japanese maple, redbud and others. Leaf Scorch: On maple (Acer species) trees a number of problems cause symptoms that are generally classified as leaf scorch. 1Acephate may damage red and sugar maples. University of Kentucky Department of Entomology Bacterial Leaf Scorch: This disease is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Seagraves and R. Bessin, University of Kentucky. If soil applied insecticides are used, make applications immediately after flowering to reduce the amount of insecticide exposure to pollinating insects. Gall Makers: Maples often develop irregular growths or swellings known as galls on their leaves. Ohio's public and privately owned forests have enough maple trees to produce 7 billion feet of lumber worth an estimated $2.5 billion. They often produce a honeydew which attracts another Japanese maple problem, sooty mold. There are many species of aphids that will attack maple trees, and it should be re-emphasized, these are not the same species of aphids as are found on other trees, turfgrass, honeysuckle, vegetables or flowers. 5Neem oil may cause injury to Japanese maples. Petr Kapitola, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture, Ronald S. Kelley, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, Bugwood.org, William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org, Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. Boring activity often starts a flow of tree sap or results in sawdust-like excrement (frass) which is visible in cracks and crevices. Tree & Ornamental Insect Treatment A wide variety of insects attack trees and ornamentals in our landscape and can cause considerable damage, sometimes in a very short period of time. Scales are unusual insects in appearance. As a result of their phenomenal ability to reproduce, aphids are very difficult to control with insecticides. Scorch symptoms tell us that one or more of the following factors are affecting the tree: Anthracnose of maple (Aureobasidium apocryptum).Paul Bachi, Bugwood.org. Scorch symptoms are light brown or tan dead areas between leaf veins or around the leaf margins. Gall-forming insect and mite pests They may be green, yellowish, pink, gray or black. If spraying is required, always spray late in the evening to reduce the direct impact on pollinating insects. As a result of the honeydew, sidewalks and cars become sticky. Presumably, the symptoms develop because of water stress within the water conducting vessels. Now, however, the results of a summer's worth of sap feeding by maple aphids is quite apparent as damaged leaves are falling from maple trees and accumulating on the ground below. The larvae feed on the inner bark of ash trees from June through October, disrupting the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients. Some are flat and appear like scales stuck to a plant, while others appear like white cottony masses. Tree borer insects cause affected parts of trees to slowly weaken as their chewing severs vital transport tissues. ... Kabatiella apocrypta) is a name for a group of diseases caused by several closely related fungi that attack many of our finest shade trees. Both narrow- and broadleaf evergreens are vulnerable to insect attack, sometimes just to an unsightly degree, and sometimes to the point of fatality. The symptoms are on all parts of the tree or only on the side exposed to sun and wind. Follow label directions for all insecticide rates (strength in solution). They could be at risk from the Asian Longhorn Beetle, an invasive species with a particular appetite for Maple. If only a few branches are infested, they may be cut out. S-225 Agricultural Science Center North, Lexington, KY 40546-0091 | 859.257.7450 Granulate ambrosia beetle frass (Xylosandrus crassiusculus) frass protruding from bark. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact UsHGIC@clemson.edu, Integrated Pest Management (I.P.M.) Prevention & Treatment: The most effective control is to replant with resistant trees. Granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus) larvae (Motschulsky, 1866).Will Hudson, University of Georgia. As with all pesticides, read and follow all label directions and precautions. Maple Insects & Diseases. Galls vary greatly in appearance, from wart-like bumps to spindle-shaped protrusions to felt-like patches on the leaf’s surface. Insect Information Fox Tree Service treats for pests which damage evergreens and deciduous trees throughout Long Island. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Symptoms often start out as a marginal chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves before they fade to a drab green or brown color. It can be a devastating experience to watch your beloved trees The damage done by borers can kill the tree. Maple trees are particularly susceptible to scale infestations. ), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants.
2020 insects that attack maple trees