Publ. Nat Res. Nat. Visually compare the tapes collected on each sample date. See Table 2 for examples of soil applied products for armored scale control. Do not implant or inject into roots or trunks more than once a year. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. However, as with all pesticides, multiple applications may be necessary depending upon the scale species and the degree of infestation. Avoid creating dust because it interferes with natural enemies. Flip an adult scale over, and if there is a separate soft body beneath the hard shell, it is an armored scale. PDF reader. However, during high heat and humidity, coupled with drought, some trees, such as maples are sensitive to oil applications. Some systemic insecticides can cause spider mite outbreaks. Scales. Imidacloprid controls European elm scale and most soft scales but does not control cottony cushion scale and most armored scales. A more dilute spray is applied when foliage is present on some sensitive plants to not cause injury. However, while these products reduce scale populations, they typically do not provide 100% control of Euonymus scale on woody plants. 7411. Effective for armored scale, not soft scale. Most contact insecticides cannot penetrate the waxy covering on scale nymphs and adults, so the crawler stage is the only life stage that these insecticides control. Horticultural oils (e.g., Bonide Horticultural Oil and Monterey Horticultural Oil) are specially refined petroleum products, often called narrow-range, superior, or supreme oils. There are no quantitative action guidelines for deciding whether pesticide application for scales is warranted. Calif. Agric. Revised from a previous edition by J. G. Morse, Entomology, UC Riverside; P. A. Phillips, UC IPM Program, emeritus, Ventura Co.; and R. E. Rice, Entomology, emeritus, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier. Corrected FINAL REPORT . Adult female scales and immatures (nymphs) of most species are circular to oval, wingless, and lack a separate head or other easily recognizable body parts. Nat. Although baits require users to be patient, they can be much more effective than sprays. Dreistadt, S. H., J. K. Clark, and M. L. Flint. As you gain experience, refine this threshold over time for your local situation. The granular products are applied around the base of the tree or shrub and watered into the soil. 2019 Regularly monitoring honeydew beneath plants, such as the number of drops during four hours on the same time of day once a week, can help to develop thresholds and evaluate effectiveness of the treatment. Beginning in April, use acephate (Orthene), carbaryl (Sevin), malathion, imidacloprid or other recommended insecticides according to label directions to control tea scale insects. Boric acid, fipronil, and hydramethylnon are examples of insecticides used in ant baits. Insecticide Active Ingredients & Products Labeled for Control of Armored Scale Insects in Residential Landscapes. Do not use with summer oil. Res. At least one to two minutes of disinfectant contact time between contaminated uses is generally required. 8.5 ft. tall). At maturity, adult females produce eggs that are usually hidden under their bodies, although some species secrete their eggs externally under prominent cottony or waxy covers. Flint, M.L., and K. Windbiel-Rojas. Evaluation of Imidacloprid for Control of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Cooperator – Gregg County - Longview, Texas Author - Randy Reeves* and Erfan Vafaie** Year - 2016 Gregg County Summary: In the genus Acanthaacoccus, the scale is a type of felt or bark scale. Doesn’t get to scale in the nooks & crannies of the plant. Soft scales include black scale, brown soft scale, Kuno scale, lecanium scales, and tuliptree scale. Mulch plants out as far as the drip line of the branches at 3” deep to conserve soil moisture. Even when sprays are properly timed, repeated applications may be needed if crawler activity extends over time. As winters have become warmer in recent years additional insect pests may have extended their range more northward into South Carolina from Florida and coastal Georgia. Populations of some scales can increase dramatically within a few months when the weather is warm, and honeydew-seeking ants protect scales from their natural enemies. Late spring and summer are also the times to spray avocado, citrus, and many other broadleaf evergreens. CMBS might be able to overwinter in the adult female and egg life stages, and crawlers and later stage nymphs have been observed overwintering under the loose bark and in cracks and crevices of crapemyrtles in our area. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Some soft scales may also have a hard covering present, but it will be smooth or with ridges, but no overlapping layers. Effective, slow-acting bait insecticides work over a period of days so that before ants die they will spread the toxicant among many other ants during food sharing. Systemics can translocate into flowers and have adverse effects on natural enemies and pollinators that feed on nectar and pollen. Res. 1993. Because ants attack and feed on scale parasites and predators, control ants if they are tending scales. Quali-Pro Imidacloprid 2F is a Group 4 Insecticide that is specially formulated to provide systemic control and long-lasting residual of soil-inhabiting insects in turfgrasses, ornamentals, nurseries, greenhouses, landscapes, and golf courses. Res. However, systemic products containing dinotefuran will aid in armored scale control. 1998. 96 & FREE Shipping. Adult tea scales on lower camellia leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. Agric. The chemical works by interfering with the transmission of stimuli in the insect nervous system. If possible, time spray applications to coincide with the scale crawler stage, which is most susceptible to all insecticides. Follow fertilizer label directions for rate. Armored Scale Insects Identified on Landscape Plants by the Clemson University Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic in 2012 & 2013. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. Horticultural oils are of the highest grade and may be used on tolerant plants during the growing season, but at reduced spray concentrations. Soft scales, family Coccidae, grow up to 1⁄4 inch long and have a smooth, cottony, or waxy surface. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. The brown soft scale is an exception; it has multiple generations and females and nymphs can be present throughout the year. Do not apply systemic insecticides to plants during flowering or shortly before flowering; wait until after plants have completed their seasonal flowering unless the product’s label directions say otherwise. Oakland: Univ. Periodically stir sticky material with a stick to prevent ants from crossing on collected debris. Adults of predatory bugs, lacewings, lady beetles, and parasitic wasps live longer, lay more eggs, and kill more scales when they have plant nectar or pollen and insect honeydew to feed on. Gardens, Landscapes, and Turf, incense-cedar scale or Monterey cypress scale, Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide, Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, Retail Nursery and Garden Center IPM News, The Scale Insects of California Part 1: The Soft Scales, The Scale Insects of California Part 2: The Minor Families, The Scale Insects of California Part 3: The Armored Scales, © 2019 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, citrus highly susceptible in Central Valley, biologically controlled in Southern California, acacia, boxwood, eugenia, euonymus, grape, magnolia, mulberry, olive, palm, podocarpus, privet, rose, acacia, bay, boxwood, ceanothus, fruit trees, holly, ivy, laurel, magnolia, manzanita, palm, pepper tree, pittosporum, pyracantha, redbud, strawberry tree, willow and others, generally not damaging, except on kiwifruit, generally not damaging, prefers aucuba, cycad or sago palm, ivy, oleander, and olive, bay, boxwood, holly, laurel, magnolia, manzanita, maple, mulberry, pepper tree, redbud, yew, yucca, poplars and willows especially susceptible, alder, aspen, box elder, boxwood, ceanothus, cottonwood, most deciduous fruit and nuts, holly, maple, sycamore, nut and stone fruit trees can be seriously damaged, also rose growing near these other hosts, acacia, aspen, citrus, cottonwood, most maple, mulberry, poplar, pyracantha, strawberry tree, willow, sometimes annoyingly abundant on its hosts away from the coast and if ant-tended, aspen, bay, citrus, cottonwood, coyote bush, holly, maple, mayten, oleander, olive, palm, pear, pepper tree, pistachio, poplar, privet, stone fruit, strawberry tree, annoyingly abundant if ant-tended, on avocado, citrus, holly, manzanita, palm, aspen, cottonwood, poplar, stone fruit, strawberry tree, willow, citrus and hackberry sometimes damaged in Central Valley, biologically controlled in Southern California, alder, almond, aspen, cottonwood, elm, grape, pear, pistachio, poplar, stone fruit, toyon, walnut, ash, birch, elm, laurel, locust, pistachio, rose, sycamore, occasional pest on its hosts in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, aralia, begonia, camellia, croton, eugenia, gardenia, hibiscus, laurel fig or Indian laurel (, Monterey pine infested, mostly in Bay Area, stone fruit sometimes damaged, especially plum, deciduous magnolias and tuliptree (yellow poplar) highly susceptible, citrus, nandina, pittosporum, and many others; usually biologically controlled, evergreen oaks in southern California; unhealthy looking canopy, slow growth, pale fungal mass, American and Chinese elms; leaf yellowing, plant decline, and dieback, Incense-cedar, Monterey cypress and other, blue oak; bark roughening and flaking off, California sycamore, London plane; premature leaf drop, dieback, bark roughening and flaking off. Armored scales, family Diaspididae, have a flattened, platelike cover that is less than 1/8 inch in diameter. In one year, there could be at least two generations of CMBS. Thorough spray coverage is especially critical when treating armored scales and oak pit scales as these scales are generally less susceptible to pesticides than soft scales. Twenty four different armored scales were identified on residential landscape plants. Most trees and shrubs can tolerate application of horticultural oil even during the summer months. Imidacloprid controls European elm scale and most soft scales but does not control cottony cushion scale and most armored scales. The latter is a particular concern for industrial bee colonies that are rented to large-scale agricultural operations. Soft scales and certain other types feed on phloem sap and excrete abundant, sticky honeydew, which drips on plants and surfaces underneath and promotes the growth of blackish sooty mold. Do not spray oystershell or olive scales during the dormant season because susceptible stages of these species are not present during winter. Many species are usually well controlled by beneficial predators and parasites (natural enemies). Dreistadt, S. H. 2010. Acephate (various brands) and imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub Insect Control and other brands) are systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. To deny ants access to plant canopies, prune branches or weeds that provide a bridge between buildings or the ground and apply a sticky material (Tanglefoot) to trunks. 2012. The Sharp Shooter Complete Bug & Insect Spray is another new product which Ausgro has released in a range of products designed to give effective plant protection with the least effect on the environment. For example, rinse small plants when foliage becomes dusty. Most soft scales have one generation each year and overwinter as second instar nymphs. Infested plants appear water stressed, leaves turn yellow and may drop prematurely, and plant parts that remain heavily infested may die. Plants should be kept as healthy as possible to reduce the chance of scale infestation. Res. 7470. Fichtner, E.J., M.W. Systemic insecticides provide an option for control when temperatures limit the use of an oil spray or when drenching around the base of the plant is more practical. To obtain adequate control, thoroughly wet the infested plant parts with spray, typically shoot terminals and the underside of leaves. Failure of contact sprays to work often results from not timing the applications to coincide with crawler activity. Insecticides can have unintended effects, such as contaminating water, poisoning natural enemies and pollinators, and causing secondary pest outbreaks. To know how and when to effectively make an application, learn more about the available insecticides and the biology of your pest species. Nondiscrimination Statement. Spray the plants thoroughly, so that the oils drip or “run off” from the upper and under sides of leaves, twigs, and plant stems. ), white. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2012 | Updated: Jan 25, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF). These are highly toxic to natural enemies and pollinators and can cause outbreaks of spider mites or other pests. As with most insects, there are several life stages and the appearance of CMBS changes with the stages. During the spring before crawlers begin to emerge, tightly encircle each of several scale-infested twigs or branches with transparent tape that is sticky on both sides, available at fabric or craft stores. Remember that euonymus scale is a hard or armored scale, so soil or drench applications of imidacloprid (Merit) are not effective. Some of these products are … Products include bright yellow cards that produce distinct blue dots upon contact with honeydew or water. Oakland: Univ. Iowa State’s Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic has received several questions recently about the use of imidacloprid on apple trees and other edible fruits and vegetables. If the descending ants have swollen, almost translucent abdomens, they may be feeding on honeydew produced by scales or other insects. Some of these products are for licensed professional applicators only. Rust, M. K., and D. -H. Choe. Trunk application of an effective systemic insecticide can provide relatively rapid control. Produced by University of California Statewide IPM Program. If a large proportion of scales are dead or parasitized by natural enemies, consider delaying a treatment decision and monitor the population again later before deciding whether to apply pesticide. Food Agric. Water trees and shrubs as needed during periods of no rainfall, which is usually no more than weekly during the growing season and monthly during the winter. The crawler emergence can be monitored with double-faced tape wrapped around a branch, or by putting an infested shoot or leaf into a baggie and watch for crawler movement.
2020 imidacloprid for scale