Be open - leverage open and established standards and discourage the use of proprietary protocols or narrow implementations. Camarinha-Matos, H. Afsarmanesh, Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling, Springer, 2008. The standard defines an architecture framework as conventions, principles and practices for the description of architectures established within a specific domain of application and/or community of stakeholders, and proposes an architecture framework is specified by: Architecture frameworks conforming to the standard can include additional methods, tools, definitions, and practices beyond those specified. Build security into the entire product lifecycle. Provide the highest quality level of service to encourage universal Cloud adoption and buy-in. Optimize for the entire user journey and experience. Finally the technology to implement the applications. Since Stephen Spewak's Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. Following a framework will give a team launching EA as a new practice a way to assemble and organize a cohesive set of models for use across the enterprise. The capabilities are supported by the services. By 1997, Zachman had renamed and refocused his ISA framework as an EA framework; it remained a classification scheme for descriptive artifacts, not a process for planning systems or changes to systems. In 2002/3, in its Enterprise Edition, TOGAF 8 shifted focus from the technology architecture layer to the higher business, data and application layers. Organizations should have confidence that application teams have proven the effectiveness and security of their solutions. An enterprise architecture framework (EA framework) defines how to create and use an enterprise architecture. Copyright © 2020 The President and Fellows of Harvard College, HARVARD UNIVERSITY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. [9], In 1996, the US IT Management Reform Act, more commonly known as the Clinger-Cohen Act, repeatedly directed that a US federal government agency's investment in IT must be mapped to identifiable business benefits. Interfaces must be well documented and freely available. Manage and document your API lifecycle. At that point, the processes in TOGAF, FEAF, EAP and BSP were clearly related. User Experience is a core consideration when designing, selecting, and delivering tools and services to the Harvard community. Enterprise architecture is unique to every organization, however, there are some common elements. Data Layer (Business information and other valuable stored data), Information System Layer (business applications offering information services to each other and to business functions). Provide seamless recovery from failure. Below is a 2d flat version of a simple Enterprise Architecture … Security can't be appropriately applied without an understanding of the risk, including existing threats and impacts, as well as the "value" of what is being secured. A change in syntax or semantics requires a new version. Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology, Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework, Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework, Colombian Enterprise Architecture Framework, Marco de Referencia de Arquitectura Empresarial, Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture, Extended Enterprise Architecture Framework, Service-oriented modeling framework (SOMF), Architecture patterns (EA reference architecture), Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework Version 1.1, Department of Defense Technical Reference Model, A brief history of EA: what is in it and what is not, TOGAF® 9.1 > Part II: Architecture Development Method (ADM) > Preliminary Phase, TOGAF® 9.1 > Part II: Architecture Development Method (ADM) > Introduction to the ADM, FEA Consolidated Reference Model Document, Engineering Enterprise Architecture: Call to Action, Enterprise Architecture Frameworks: The Fad of the Century,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Reuse common capabilities and automate repetitive processes. In order to improve user productivity, reduce frustration, and increase effectiveness for all users, user experience methods and techniques are applied across the full systems development lifecycle, with a focus on: accessibility, ussbility, and mobility. L.M. The business mission is the primary driver. Here are some examples: enterprise business architect, enterprise documentational architect, enterprise application architect, enterprise infrastructure architect, enterprise information architect, etc. An aim is to improve data quality, access to data, adaptability to changing requirements, data interoperability and sharing, and cost containment. The Class, subject and entity forms a hierarchical view of data. The application and technology domains (not to be confused with business domains) are characterized by domain capabilities and domain services. Incorporate user feedback throughout the design, testing, and implementation process. Select and build applications that include re-usable components. Select tools and products that have multiple implementations. It takes … The components of an architecture framework provide structured guidance that is divided into three main areas:[4], The earliest rudiments of the step-wise planning methodology currently advocated by TOGAF and other EA frameworks can be traced back to the article of Marshall K. Evans and Lou R. Hague titled "Master Plan for Information Systems"[7] published in 1962 in Harvard Business Review. Failures will occur and perfect security is impossible to achieve, so it is important to balance prevention measures with detection and response functions. understand the issues and opportunities with the current applications and technical architecture; develop a future state and migration path for the technology that supports the enterprise; provide business executives with a direction and decision making framework for IT capital expenditures; provide the information system (IS) with a blueprint for development. TOGAF started out taking a strategic and enterprise-wide, but technology-oriented, view. Minimize customization and in-house development. In 2006, the popular book Enterprise Architecture As Strategy[16] reported the results of work by MIT's Center for Information System Research. Business Layer (business functions offering services to each other and to external entities). Enterprise Architecture works to support these integration requirements by aligning people, processes and tools across the University. Many enterprise architecture teams consist of Individuals with Skills aligned with the Enterprise Architecture Domains and sub-domain disciplines. Evolution and reinvestment in applications are driven in part by changing business requirements, but also in part by transitions in technologies such as web-based applications, and cloud computing. Data transformation for common data assets is performed the smallest number of times, ideally once. The architecture was split into technology, applications, information, and business domains. Enterprise, Business and IT Architects at all levels who construct and govern architecture building blocks (ABBs) to enable the creation of effective solution building blocks. No matter where CIOs turn, they hear the same message: You must deploy an SOA—quickly—or be at a competitive disadvantage. Methods for designing architecture: processes that architects follow. [13], In 1990, the term "Enterprise Architecture" was formally defined for the first time as an architecture that "defines and interrelates data, hardware, software, and communications resources, as well as the supporting organization required to maintain the overall physical structure required by the architecture".[13][15]. Identify failures modes and design accordingly. Simply stated, enterprise architecture framework (EAF) refers to any framework, process, or methodology which informs how to create and use an enterprise architecture.So, what is enterprise architecture?At a high level, enterprise architecture offers a comprehensive approach and holistic view of IT throughout an enterprise. Make interactive systems equally operable for all users on all common devices, regardless of circumstances or limitations. The domains higher in the stack were built on top of and depended upon the lower layers. What EA Does. Then the data required to satisfy the mission. Continuously improve Cloud solutions and empower customers to take advantage of the full benefits of the Cloud. Enterprises may have millions of instances of data entities. The term enterprise architecture did not appear. Transform data the least number of times and into the smallest number of different formats. "If you deploy SOA-based technology before yo… Encourage innovation and experimentation. Since Stephen Spewak’s Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. For many years, it has been common to regard the architecture domains as layers, with the idea that each layer contains components that execute processes and offer services to the layer above. It structures architects' thinking by dividing the architecture description into domains, layers, or views, and offers models - typically matrices and diagrams - for documenting each view. [9] In other words, Enterprise Architecture is not a business strategy, planning or management methodology. )In the 1980s, a four-layer division of system architecture came into use by system designers. Find published architecture standards and guidance to align technology strategy across the university. Enterprise Architecture Domains (Figure 2. [9] However, some still use the term Enterprise Architecture as a synonym for Business Architecture, rather than covering all four architecture domains - business, data, applications and technology. Browse the Documents. Use an API versioning system to manage API changes and indicate compatibility levels. Make every effort to leverage cloud infrastructure first. "[17] Normally, the business principles, business goals, and strategic drivers of the organization are defined elsewhere. Right up to version 7, TOGAF was still focused on defining and using a Technical Reference Model (or foundation architecture) to define the platform services required from the technologies that an entire enterprise uses to support business applications. Provide foundational services to customers that improve application quality, delivery and reliability. The NIST Enterprise Architecture Model seemingly was the first publication that consistently used the term "Enterprise Architecture". "[10] However, in this article the term "Enterprise Architecture" was mentioned only once without any specific definition and all subsequent works of Zachman used the term "Information Systems Architecture". Vendors apply the label, often speciously, to help sell their products. This way of looking at the architecture domains was evident in TOGAF v1 (1996), which encapsulated the technology component layer behind the platform services defined in the "Technical Reference Model" - very much according to the philosophy of TAFIM and POSIX. Business Architecture Meta Model; We have broken out the business layer relations as they are quite broad, the other layers are within the diagrams. Provide the means for migrating to a Cloud infrastructure. Organization of architects: guidance on the team structure and the governance of the team, including the skills, experience, and training needed. It's an easy concept to define, but more difficult to implement effectively. Business Architecture to Other Layers; Business Architecture to Support; Class Documentation - Business Architecture Layer APIs are the preferred method of moving information between systems. Use a meaningful identity - Users and applications should be permitted through their identity and system and not their current address. The view of architecture domains as layers can be presented thus: Each layer delegates work to the layer below. Use infrastructure and services that enable developers and administrators to manage application performance, cost and operational risk. In 2001, the US Chief CIO council published A practical guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture, which starts, “An enterprise architecture (EA) establishes the Agency-wide roadmap to achieve an Agency’s mission through optimal performance of its core business processes within an efficient information technology (IT) environment." In 1993, Stephen Spewak's book Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) defined a process for defining architectures for the use of information in support of the business and the plan for implementing those architectures. Source systems should export data in a single format. Avoid the duplication of effort and unnecessary expense of redundant implementations. Data and information are key University assets that must be managed to maximize value and minimize risk. Continually test designs with users to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. A 2008 research project for the development of professional certificates in enterprise and solution architecture by the British Computer Society (BCS) showed that enterprise architecture has always been inseparable from information system architecture, which is natural, since business people need information to make decisions and carry out business processes. The technical services are typically supported by software products. It introduced structured analysis, after information technology engineering, which features, for example, mappings of organization units to business functions and data entities to business functions. Build and evaluate applications considering institutional principles and policies. Thus the role of Middleware is to provide complex services to application teams in an approachable and robust way. The hardware elements of Harvard’s IT capability must be aligned with the organization's business goals. It may be supported by approaches, techniques, tools, principles, rules, and practices. Establishing and Maintaining An Enterprise Architecture Capability Provide systems and controls to give end users flexibility and control over their resources. What is the stack or layers of Enterprise Architecture? Think of an enterprise as a collection of organizations that have a common set of goals in delivering products or services to their market. Layer - Strategy. ... Has both a comprehensive taxonomy and an architectural process - can be viewed as either a methodology for creating an enterprise architecture or the result of applying that process to a particular enterprise … Most of the Enterprise Architecture Frameworks … With a layered architecture, applications can enforce restrictions on which layers can communicate with other layers. monitoring, logging, alerting, centralized configuration management etc.). Process advice: some kind of Architecture Development Method, with supporting guidance. This layer is very powerful and is arguably the most comprehensive layer in any of the enterprise architecture tools - this is purposely done to enable you to answer complex enterprise architecture focused questions about your information and data architecture… TOGAF 9.1 White Paper An Introduction to TOGAF Version 9.1. Minimize version changes to provide stability. This helps to achieve encapsulation. The data view starts with the data classes which can be decomposed into data subjects which can be further decomposed into data entities. Technology Layer (generic hardware, network and platform applications offering platform services to each other and to business applications). Usually, an overarching enterprise architecture process, composed of phases, broken into lower-level processes composed of finer grained activities. [11][12], In 1986, the PRISM architecture framework was developed as a result of the research project sponsored by a group of companies, including IBM, which was seemingly the first published EA framework.[13]. Indeed, there are advantages to adopting the SOA approach even if you’re not at the stage at which CISR says enterprises can reap its full benefits. Use shared services that work in multi-tenant environments. Understand your users and their needs and make that a priority for design decisions. Enterprise Architecture at Harvard Search . When a layer is changed or replaced, only those layers … Since Stephen Spewak's Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. These domains can be further divided into Sub domain disciplines. In 1989, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published the NIST Enterprise Architecture Model. The four commonly accepted domains of enterprise architecture are: Business architecture domain – describes how the enterprise is organizationally structured and what functional capabilities are necessary to deliver the business vision… It was not an EA framework as we see it now, but it helped to establish the notion of dividing EA into architecture domains or layers. Provide expertise and offer services that enable the customer to make well-informed decisions and actively manage their applications. Perhaps the best-known standard in the field of software architecture and system architecture started life as IEEE 1471, an IEEE Standard for describing the architecture of a software-intensive system approved in 2000. EAM translates the enterprise vision into venture and takes the enterprise through the journey from its current state to the target state. CIOs can’t avoid SOA today. An example of the list of reference architecture patterns in the application and information architecture domains are available at Architectural pattern (computer science). Many of the aims, principles, concepts and methods now employed in EA frameworks were established in the 1980s, and can be found in IS and IT architecture frameworks published in that decade and the next.[9]. A 2d flat version. Use infrastructure and services that enable virtualization, abstraction, elasticity, and automation. Applications reflect the most direct alignment of Information Technology solutions to business requirements. Contemporary trends in computing have enlarged this concept to include difficult-to-implement but common capabilities such as authentication, authorization, access control, API management, security management, monitoring, logging, and other capabilities. Users should have confidence that their interactions with applications will not harm them. TOGAF, ASSIMPLER, EAF) include most of the above. Given IBM already employed BSP, Zachman had no need to provide planning process. Nowadays there are now countless EA frameworks, many more than in the following listing. [13], In 1994, the Open Group selected TAFIM from the US DoD as a basis for development of The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), where architecture meant IT architecture. EA3 Layers. All data assets must be documented with descriptions and easily available to members of the Harvard Community. Enterprise architecture management (EAM) is a structured approach that an enterprise uses for creating, managing, and using enterprise architecture to align business and IT. Infomet - conceived by Pieter Viljoen in 1990, Pragmatic Enterprise Architecture Framework (PEAF), This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 06:52. Today, business functions are often called business capabilities. EAP has its roots in IBM's Business Systems Planning (BSP). Enterprise Architecture works to define, design and align the sum of Harvard’s physical and virtual infrastructure to ensure efficient and effective support of business applications. FEAF was a process much like TOGAF's ADM, in which “The architecture team generates a sequencing plan for the transition of systems, applications, and associated business practices predicated upon a detailed gap analysis [between baseline and target architectures].”. Build and use reusable APIs to exchange data between systems. Several enterprise architecture frameworks break down the practice of enterprise architecture into a number of practice areas or "domains" (also called viewpoints, layers or aspects). Align customer applications with Harvard’s IT direction. Descriptions of architecture: how to document the enterprise as a system, from several viewpoints. There should be multiple vendor or open source implementations for vendor-supplied interfaces. The architecture was split into technology, applications, information, and business domains. Risk and security must be understood and applied across the whole system and not just within a specific layer. The paper did not mention enterprise architecture. Research firms and the business press trumpet its ability to make companies agile and efficient. We approach the work of defining an architecture for the University by considering each layer of our physical architecture "stack", as well as cross-cutting security requirements, and articulating a set of Principles, Standards and Resources for each layer. Utilize the ‘defense in depth’ approach. Middleware has historically reflected Information Technology solutions that could be shared by multiple users, such as shared Oracle databases. Most modern EA frameworks (e.g. These architecture sub-layers are clearly related to one another via well-definable relations; integration of these sub-layers is a necessity for a cohesive and effective enterprise architecture design. Obtain data only when needed in order to maximize data currency. 1 Articulates a set of principles and standards aligned to each architecture layer 2 Engages with IT teams across Harvard through Architecture … Select and build applications that meet multiple needs and can support multiple organizations. Give preference to services that provide full management and operation capabilities to application teams in order to minimize redundant investment in staff, skills, and computing resources. The domains higher in the stack were built on top of and depended upon the lower layers. The NIST Enterprise Architecture Model is a five-layered model for enterprise architecture, designed for organizing, planning, and building an integrated set of information and information technology architectures. ARCON – A Reference Architecture for Collaborative Networks – not focused on a single enterprise but rather on networks of enterprises, European Space Agency Architectural Framework (ESAAF) - a framework for European space-based Systems of Systems, Nederlandse Overheid Referentie Architectuur (NORA) – a reference framework from the Dutch Government, India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA) framework -, ASSIMPLER Framework – an architecture framework, based on the work of Mandar Vanarse at Wipro in 2002. Facilitate evolution with the technology to achieve greater value in both time and cost. Each view describes one slice of the architecture; it includes those entities and relationships that address particular concerns of interest to particular stakeholders; it may take the form of a list, a table, a diagram, or a higher level of composite of such. Design and expect failure; routine failure should not impact availability. In its latest version, the standard is published as ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system. Enterprise Architecture Planning is a data-centric approach to architecture planning. Favor AWS-native over vendor agnostic solutions except where ITSMspecific services are required (e.g. Security is best accomplished if built into the entire product lifecycle (design, deployment, operation, and end of life) and not "bolted on" afterwards.
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